Athlete Development Matrix Resources

Active Start
Average age: 6 and under (Males and Females)

Training load: variety of activities year round; organized ski sessions: 6-8 weeks, one session per week. 30 to 60 min.

Emphasis: Develop a wide range of abilities through a variety of activities year round; Learning should be accomplished through a mix of play and discovery in situations in which children learn to ski naturally, with limited formal instruction.

Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Important period for developing fundamental movement skills
  • Introduce children to cross-country skiing early (e.g. three years of age)
  • Bunnyrabbit Skills Award
  • Focus on snow is balance, gliding, diagonal stride without poles
  • Spend time on skis in addition to sessions (as many ski playground experiences as possible)
  • Development of Fundamental Movement Skills
Good execution of the following techniques:

  • falling and rising
  • side stepping
  • star turn
  • basic diagonal stride and herring bone

Fundamental Movement Skills benchmarks for 3,4,5 year olds

Energy Systems
  • Develop fitness and movement skills as a FUN part of daily life
  • Provide unstructured physical activity: active play for at least 1hr. and up to several hrs per day depending on age
  • Child has normal fitness level and can play actively for a minimum of 30min. daily, continuously and at varying intensities
Strength & FlexibilityStrength:

Naturally developed with multi activity lifestyle (gymnastic, dancing, swimming, etc)

Flexibility:

Females are very flexible; Males are flexible but less so than females

Strength:

Fundamental Movement Skills (benchmarks for 3,4,5 year olds)

Flexibility:

Standards per stage of development

Mental SkillsPreamble

  • Provide activities that help children to feel competent and comfortable
  • Emphasize trying new activities and having fun
  • Promote fair play

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Athlete:

  • Views competition as an opportunity to demonstrate skill
  • Can focus on own performance rather than outcome during training when reminded (i.e., is able to compete with one’s self)
  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Is able to adhere to simple rules of ski safety and codes of behavior conduct
  • Has been introduced to the concept of controlling one’s “breathing”, noticing breath through counting and the change in breathing by changing ratio of in- to out-breath
  • Is encouraged to use imagery to practice sport skills, develop patience and self-control skills
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring
  • Frequently exposed to a variety of different foods and tastes
  • Well balanced diet; eating often
  • Hydration during and after activity (active kids should drink on a schedule; thirst is a poor indicator of hydration status for young athletes)
  • Adequate calcium intake, require 800 mg a day

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Good appetite
  • Introduce varieties of fruits, vegetables, fish and meat
  • Healthy eating attitudes and environment
  • Energy level maintained throughout activity
  • Quick recovery from physical activity
  • Calcium: at least 2 cups of milk/soy beverage daily
CompetitionSee Competition ModelSee Competition Model
Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Fundamentals - part 1

Average age: 6-7 (Males and Females)

Training load: Minimum 16 practice sessions on-snow per season (2x/week); 60 min. of organized activity plus supervised active ski play; time on skis in addition to sessions – as many ski playground experiences as possible (several times a week)

Emphasis: Develop general fitness and fundamental motor skills through participation in a variety of sports/activities on a regular basis, year-round

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Develop good running technique
  • Jackrabbit Skills Award: levels 1 & 2.
  • Focus on balance, agility, and coordination
  • Use games that reinforce technique being taught
  • Use “Snow Goals” to encourage time on snow. Good technique habits are developed through repeated practice

Good execution of the following techniques:

  • diagonal stride, running step
  • herringbone
  • free glide
  • Snowplow breaking

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Develop general fitness through participation in a variety of sports/activities on a regular basis, year round
  • Early phase of first Window of Optimal Trainability for speed: Include sprints (approx. 5 sec.) in games that use short bursts, quick changes of directions, i.e. tag or obstacle courses
  • Utilize games to develop technique, speed, skills and fitness
  • Child has normal fitness level and can play actively for a minimum of 60 min. daily, continuously and at varying intensities
  • Time reaction tests, footdrills
Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Work on Movement Patterns using body weight movements and games
  • Exercises and games that develop shoulder stability and mobility
  • Include sports that naturally require above average strength such as swimming and gymnastics.
  • Introduce low-intensity plyometrics; focus on movement skill development: drills to ensure no valgus or inward collapse of the knees

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Both genders are very flexible (females more than males) but still a good time to start developing good stretching and warm-up/cool-down habits
  • Early phase of Window of Optimal Trainability for flexibility development: good time to start learning good stretching and warm-up/cool-down habits

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Reinforce a positive attitude in sport
  • Emphasize effort, doing one’s best, finishing, and persistence/perseverance
  • Encourage positive reinforcement from coaches and parents
  • Introduce concept of self-confidence
  • Introduce focus/refocus and concentration skills
  • Introduce self-control skills (breathing, patience)
  • Promote respect for others and fair play
  • Promote teamwork and positive interaction skills
  • Foster a positive attitude towards physical activity and participation

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Views competition as an opportunity to demonstrate skill
  • Can focus on own performance rather than outcome during training when reminded (i.e., is able to compete with one’s self)
  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Is able to adhere to simple rules of ski safety and codes of behaviour conduct
  • Has been introduced to the concept of controlling one’s “breathing”, noticing breath through counting and the change in breathing by changing ratio of in- to out-breath
  • Is encouraged to use imagery to practice sport skills, develop patience and self-control skills
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring
  • frequently exposed to a variety of different foods and tastes
  • well balanced diet (high in nutrient-dense complex carbohydrates, moderate amounts of protein, sugar and sodium, low in fat and cholesterol; high in good fat/omega-3 )
  • Hydration during and after activity (active kids should drink on a schedule; thirst is a poor indicator of hydration status)
  • Parents, coaches and athletes education
  • Consume at least 800 mg of calcium daily

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Good appetite
  • Eat several different fruits, vegetables, fish and meat
  • familiar with importance of hydration
  • energy level maintained throughout activity
  • quick recovery from physical activity
Competition

Distance:

  • 0.5 to 1.5 km (5 to 10 min)
  • 100-200m (skills race)

Total = 4 – 6 races/season

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

See Competition Model
Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Fundamentals - part 2
Average age: Females 7-8, Males 8-9

Training load: 10 to 15 pre-ski season/classroom sessions (start mid-October); 30 on snow sessions (2x/wk.), 90 min. of organized activity plus supervised active play; Time on skis in addition to sessions (ski playground experiences)

Emphasis: Develop general fitness and motor skills through a variety of activities/sports requiring different skills on a regular basis, year-round. Develop team/social atmosphere

Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Master fundamental movement skills
  • Develop overall motor skills
  • Develop good running technique
  • Jackrabbit technique levels 3 & 4
  • Acquire basic cross-country ski skills (classic and skating); Equal use of techniques; Develop downhill abilities.
  • Focus on balance, agility and rhythm.
  • Use “Snow Goals” to encourage time on snow. Good technique habits are developed through repeated practice.
Good prolonged execution of the following techniques:

  • diagonal stride, long step
  • double-poling
  • one step double poling
  • free skate
  • downhill tuck
  • diagonal skate
  • kick turn
  • skate turn

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • First Window of Optimal Trainability for speed: Develop linear, lateral and multi-directional speed with duration of repetitions less than 5 sec. (games that use short bursts, quick changes of directions, i.e. tag or obstacle courses)
  • Avoid anaerobic (capacity and power) efforts (i.e. 30-90 sec. at highest intensity)
  • Child has normal fitness level and can play actively for a minimum of 60 min. daily, continuously and at varying intensities
  • Timed reaction tests, footdrills (hop scotch for example)
  • 50 skips of skip rope in 30 sec.
Strength & FlexibilityStrength:

  • Work on Movement Patterns using body weight movements and games
  • Exercises and games that develop shoulder stability and mobility
  • Develop strength using exercises that incorporate the child’s own body weight, Medicine balls and Swiss balls
  • Include sports that naturally require above average strength such as swimming and gymnastics.
  • Introduce low-intensity plyometrics; focus on movement skill development: drills to ensure no valgus or inward collapse of the knees

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Both genders are very flexible (females more than males) but still a good time to develop good stretching and warm-up/cool-down habits
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for flexibility: basic dynamic and static stretching routine with emphasis on proper technique

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

Flexibility:

Mental SkillsPreamble

  • Reinforce a positive attitude in sport
  • Emphasize effort, doing one’s best, finishing, and persistence/perseverance
  • Encourage positive reinforcement from coaches and parents
  • Introduce concept of self-confidence
  • Introduce focus/refocus and concentration skills
  • Introduce self-control skills (breathing, patience)
  • Promote respect for others and fair play
  • Promote teamwork and positive interaction skills
  • Foster a positive attitude towards physical activity and participation

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Views competition as an opportunity to demonstrate skill
  • Can focus on own performance rather than outcome during training when reminded (i.e., is able to compete with one’s self)
  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Is able to adhere to simple rules of ski safety and codes of behaviour conduct
  • Has been introduced to the concept of controlling one’s “breathing”, noticing breath through counting and the change in breathing by changing ratio of in- to out-breath
  • Is encouraged to use imagery to practice sport skills, develop patience and self-control skills
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring
  • frequently exposed to a variety of different foods and tastes
  • well balanced diet (high in nutrient-dense complex carbohydrates, moderate amounts of protein, sugar and sodium, low in fat and cholesterol; high in good fat/omega-3 )
  • Hydration during and after activity (active kids should drink on a schedule; thirst is a poor indicator of hydration status)
  • Parents, coaches and athletes education
  • Consume at least 800 mg of calcium daily

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Good appetite
  • Eat several different fruits, vegetables, fish and meat
  • familiar with importance of hydration
  • energy level maintained throughout activity
  • quick recovery from physical activity
CompetitionDistance:

  • 0.5 to 1.5 km (5 to 10 min)
  • 100-200m (skills race)

Total = 4 – 6 races/season

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

See Competition Model
Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Learn to Train - part 1 (L2T-1)

Average age: Females 8-9, Males 9-10

Training load: Group sessions start Sept 15; 1.25 to 1.5 hrs 3x/week during fall and ski season; Up to 70 sessions including competitions and special activities; Skiing from first snow to last snow

Emphasis: Window of Optimal Trainability for motor skills and flexibility; increase technical proficiency in all techniques and consolidation of movement skills; Ensure “adventure-based” activities are built into the season plan; emphasize group interaction, team building and social activities.

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for motor skills/coordination
  • All basic skiing skills should be refined before the end of the stage(both sides for offset and two skate techniques)
  • Focus on balance, agility and rhythm
  • Good technique habits are developed through repeated practice.
  • Use games that reinforce technique being taught
  • Skiers must have a lot of time on snow to consolidate their technique
  • Skiers must be exposed to good examples of technique

Good prolonged execution of the following techniques:

  • double poling
  • one step double poling
  • free skate
  • one skate
  • two skate
  • offset
  • step turn
  • parallel side slipping

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Aerobic fitness is increasingly important; include longer periods at lower intensity and general aerobic activities 3-4 x/week
  • Include speed exercises in practice sessions; by using specific activities that focus on agility, quickness and change of direction

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m(mm:ss)

  • male = 3:50
  • female = 4:00
Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Develop strength using medicine ball, Swiss ball, own body weight
  • Include basic core strength exercises
  • Include some ski related hopping and bounding exercises for leg strength and movement skill development
  • Introduce to the Weight Room: focus on learning technique; small weight – perfect technique
  • Can do any loaded exercise for which they can show perfect technical ability
  • low-intensity plyometrics; emphasize good technique and alignment

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Both genders are very flexible (females more than males) but still a good time to develop good stretching and warm-up/cool-down habits
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for flexibility: basic dynamic and static stretching routine with emphasis on proper technique

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Introduce race tactics
  • Introduce the concept of pre-race mental preparation
  • Continue to emphasize effort, doing one’s best, finishing, and persistence/ perseverance
  • Awareness of pre-competitive emotions
  • Continue to develop self-confidence
  • Continue to develop focus/refocus and concentration skills
  • Develop self-awareness of range of emotions experienced in sport and participation
  • Continue to develop self-control skills (breathing and patience)
  • Promote sport as a lifestyle commitment (nutrition, hydration, recovery, regeneration)
  • Introduce discipline and structure
  • Promote an understanding of the relationship between effort and outcome
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Is able to notice and verbalize thoughts and feelings related to skiing and is able to ask for help from adults
  • Is able to articulate aspects of his/her own performance that he/she wants to achieve (rather than outcome) without reminders during training
  • Demonstrates the capacity to articulate and focus on performance standards to achieve (rather than outcome) during competition
  • Views making mistakes as part of the ‘game’ and tries to learn from mistakes to improve performance (during training)
  • Is able to control breath outside skiing activities and has some control over breath during skiing activities
  • Is able to change the pacing of breath through shifts in ratio between in- and out-breaths
  • Is able to use the out-breath to release tension
  • Can change the pacing of breath through shifts in ratio between in- and out-breaths
  • Can use the out-breath to release tension
  • Has been introduced to Mental Relaxation Strategies other than breathing
  • Can practice progressive muscle relaxation, imagery and autogenic relaxation
  • Regularly practices imagery focusing on developing the vividness and controllability of images during training and prior to/following competitive events
  • Is introduced to “Thought Stop” his/her negative thoughts in training
  • Is able to “Spot” a negative thought, interrupt or “STOP” a negative thought, and then “SWAP” the negative thought with a positive and productive thought
  • Has been introduced to the concept of long-term and short-term goals (for self-mastery of skiing, not necessarily competitive performance)
  • Understands how short-term goals contribute to the achievement of long-term goals
  • Can set a short term performance goal
  • Has been introduced to basic/age appropriate information about hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport as a healthy lifestyle
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring
  • develop rehydration strategies
  • develop basic pre race nutritional strategies
  • optimal nutrition: quality food, varied menu
  • increased intake of calcium and protein to support growth spurt; require 1300 mg Calcium daily
  • Parents, coaches and athletes education

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Appropriate growth rate
  • Energy levels maintained throughout activity
  • Quick recovery from physical activity
  • Increase practical nutrition knowledge
  • Good self-body image
CompetitionSprints:

  • 100m or < 20 sec.
  • 100-300m (skills race)

Distance:

  • 1 – 3 km (5 to 20 min)

Total = 6 – 8 races/season

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces for 3km:

Skating :
Males: 3:50 /km
Females: 4:00/ km

Classic :
Males: 3:55/km
Females: 4:15/km

PS: assuming 4-5% improvement per year for next 2 years

See Competition Model

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Learn to Train - part 2 (L2T-2)
Average age: Females 8-9, Males 9-10

Training load: Group sessions start Sept 15; 1.25 to 1.5 hrs 3x/week during fall and ski season; Up to 70 sessions including competitions and special activities; Skiing from first snow to last snow

Emphasis: Window of Optimal Trainability for motor skills and flexibility; increase technical proficiency in all techniques and consolidation of movement skills; Ensure “adventure-based” activities are built into the season plan; emphasize group interaction, team building and social activities.

Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Late phase of Window of Optimal Trainability for motor skills
  • continued emphasis on acquisition and refinement of all skiing techniques(both sides for offset and two skate techniques)
  • start education about theoretical notions of weight shift, balance, coordination and amplitude, and how they affect performance
  • Getting better at choosing proper technique according to speed and track conditions
  • balance and weight shift are refined for all techniques
  • decreasing number of falls during training and racing

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Early phase of Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic capacity
  • Females only: early phase of Window of Optimal Trainability for speed (anaerobic alactic power and capacity, 5-20 sec)
  • expand ancillary capacities
  • longer skiing at low intensity, 2 X per week, 5-10km range
Running (3-4 times off season):

100m (mm:ss)
Male = 14sec
Female = 15 sec

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 3:35
Female = 3:50

2000m(mm:ss)
Male = 8:00
Female = 9:00

Strength & FlexibilityStrength:

  • medicine ball, swiss ball, own body weight
  • Include basic core strength
  • Include hopping and bounding exercises for leg strength and movement skill development
  • Introduce to the Weight Room: focus on learning technique; small weight – perfect technique
  • Can do any loaded exercise for which they can show perfect technical ability
  • low-intensity plyometrics; emphasize good technique and alignment

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Maintain flexibility
  • Growth spurts can occur during this stage; bones may grow faster than the muscles that attach to them; more frequent stretching is required to prevent damage to muscles and tendons

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

Flexibility:

Mental SkillsPreamble

  • Introduce race tactics
  • Introduce the concept of pre-race mental preparation
  • Continue to emphasize effort, doing one’s best, finishing, and persistence/ perseverance
  • Awareness of pre-competitive emotions
  • Continue to develop self-confidence
  • Continue to develop focus/refocus and concentration skills
  • Develop self-awareness of range of emotions experienced in sport and participation
  • Continue to develop self-control skills (breathing and patience)
  • Promote sport as a lifestyle commitment (nutrition, hydration, recovery, regeneration)
  • Introduce discipline and structure
  • Promote an understanding of the relationship between effort and outcome
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Is able to notice and verbalize thoughts and feelings related to skiing and is able to ask for help from adults
  • Is able to articulate aspects of his/her own performance that he/she wants to achieve (rather than outcome) without reminders during training
  • Demonstrates the capacity to articulate and focus on performance standards to achieve (rather than outcome) during competition
  • Views making mistakes as part of the ‘game’ and tries to learn from mistakes to improve performance (during training)
  • Is able to control breath outside skiing activities and has some control over breath during skiing activities
  • Is able to change the pacing of breath through shifts in ratio between in- and out-breaths
  • Is able to use the out-breath to release tension
  • Can change the pacing of breath through shifts in ratio between in- and out-breaths
  • Can use the out-breath to release tension
  • Has been introduced to Mental Relaxation Strategies other than breathing
  • Can practice progressive muscle relaxation, imagery and autogenic relaxation
  • Regularly practices imagery focusing on developing the vividness and controllability of images during training and prior to/following competitive events
  • Is introduced to “Thought Stop” his/her negative thoughts in training
  • Is able to “Spot” a negative thought, interrupt or “STOP” a negative thought, and then “SWAP” the negative thought with a positive and productive thought
  • Has been introduced to the concept of long-term and short-term goals (for self-mastery of skiing, not necessarily competitive performance)
  • Understands how short-term goals contribute to the achievement of long-term goals
  • Can set a short term performance goal
  • Has been introduced to basic/age appropriate information about hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport as a healthy lifestyle
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring
  • continuation of re-hydration strategies
  • develop basic pre and post race nutritional strategies
  • optimal nutrition: quality food, varied menu
  • increased intake of calcium and proteins to support growth spurt; require 1300 mg calcium daily
  • Parents, coaches and athletes education

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Appropriate growth rate
  • Energy levels maintained throughout activity
  • Quick recovery from physical activity
  • Increase practical nutrition knowledge
  • Team meetings to discuss foods for competitions, especially when out of town and cooking meals together – great opportunity to learn about food preparation
  • Focus on food variety but allow kids to think for themselves
  • Continue to educate parents about athletes’ nutrition
CompetitionSprints:

  • 100m or < 20 sec.
  • 100-300m (skills race)

Distance:

  • 1 – 3 km (5 to 20 min)

Total = 6 – 8 races/season

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces for 3km:

Skating :
Males: 3:32/km
Females: 3:45/km

Classic :
Males: 3:40/km
Females: 4:00/km

PS: assuming 4-5% improvement per year for next 2 years

See Competition Model

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Train to Train - part 1 (T2T-1)

Average age: Females 11-13, Males 12-14

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = progression from 300-400hrs over 3 years; Group sessions begin mid-Sept (with some summer sessions) 2-3 X/week off season; 3-4 X/week during snow season (including competitions); sport specific training 6-9 X week.

Emphasis: Major fitness development stage(use PHV as reference point); Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic capacity and speed; continue to refine technique; build the aerobic base; build strength towards the end of the stage for females (specifically following PHV)

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans:
NB: provided samples are for T2T-2 athletes; T2T-1 athletes should simply progressively move toward these guidelines

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • refinement of all skiing techniques (both sides for offset and two skate techniques)
  • learn to better adapt technique to the terrain
  • learn dryland techniques (ski walking, striding)
  • learn basic biomechanical principles
  • learn to adapt technique to all snow conditions and a variety of trail surfaces and types
  • improve downhill skills
  • optimize running technique
  • can explain and demonstrate notions of weight shift, balance, coordination and amplitude, and how they affect performance
  • chooses proper technique according to speed and track conditions
  • balance and weight shift are well mastered for all techniques

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic capacity training
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for anaerobic alactic power and capacity ( ≤ 20 sec.) (only at the end of sub-stage for males)
  • Start of Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power (following PHV, likely females only in this sub-stage)
  • mixed aerobic activities, specific and non specific
  • females can begin some anaerobic lactic power training (20-60 sec. intervals).

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans

  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 3min-15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 3:25
Female = 3:45

3000m(mm:ss)
Male = 11:30
Female = 12:40

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 247
Females: 224

  • Increased capacity to sustain prolonged efforts (at low intensity):

hiking: 4 hrs
cycling: 2.5 hrs
running: 1hr (trail)
skiing: 2.5 hrs

Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Females: Start of Window of Optimal Trainability for strength (at onset of menarche)
  • Incorporate more time in the Weight Room
  • Pre Puberty work on lea
    rning and perfecting technique
  • Peak Height Velocity is a good time to work on strength as learning technique at this time is not optimal. Do not try to learn any new difficult technique
  • Should have the appropriate movement patterns by this time
  • emphasis on upper body strength as smaller muscles recover faster
  • include some endurance strength work, (skate without poles, double poling, kayaking)Specific T2T guidelines

Specific T2T guidelines
Specific strength practice plans for T2T

Flexibility:

Emphasize flexibility due to growth spurts and generally decreasing flexibility; more frequent stretching is required to prevent damage to muscles and tendons

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:
National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):

Males = 210
Females = 160

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Continue to introduce race tactics
  • Introduce sport rules and ethics
  • Develop mental preparation: appropriate attitude to competition, being the best you can be, belief in the process
  • Use of mental skills to control pre-competitive emotions
  • Promote an understanding of the role of practice towards achieving goals (outcome, performance, process; short/long term)
  • Profile and promote awareness of mental qualities of racing different distances
  • Continue to develop focus/refocus and concentration skills (imagery)
  • Continue to develop self-control skills (breathing, biofeedback, identify negative and positive thoughts, patience, problem-solving)
  • Develop post-race analysis skills
  • Continue to develop cultural and lifestyle habits
  • Introduce the use of training logs for competitive season
  • Introduce skills of time management
  • Promote positive communication
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Introduce self- discipline and personal responsibility skills (e.g., awareness of Peak Height Velocity and windows of optimal trainability)
  • Introduce travel strategies

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Can comprehend the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behavior conduct during training and racing
  • Demonstrates responsibility towards appropriate clothing and equipment for training and competitive environment
  • Has been introduced to basic/age appropriate information about hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport as a healthy lifestyle
  • Can identify select factors that contribute to good and poor performance
  • Achieves desired personal performance in general and during different ski race distances
  • Is able to control breathing during skiing activities
  • Can change the pacing of breath through shifts in ratio between in- and out-breaths
  • Can use the out-breath to release tension
  • Regularly practices a formal relaxation technique such as progressive muscle relaxation, imagery relaxation, or autogenic relaxation (during training and to manage pre-competitive stress)
  • Can “Thought Stop” his/her negative thoughts in the training environment
  • Can recognize pre-competitive worries and use “Thought Stopping” to prepare for competition
  • Is introduced to training log to track select physical and mental performance skills
  • Is introduced to using a simple race plan during competition
  • Is able to define “SMARTER” short-term goals for training. [SMARTER: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-based, evaluated, recorded]
  • Can differentiate between outcome, performance and process goals
  • Has been introduced to use imagery for skill learning and skill performing in training environment
  • Uses imagery to practice skills, learn new skills/strategy, evaluate/correct mistakes, build confidence, aid relaxation and concentration
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoringNutrition:

  • Start education about sport specific nutrition
  • optimal nutrition: quality food, varied menu
  • increased intake of calcium and proteins to support growth spurt; require 1300 mg calcium daily
  • Parents, coaches and athletes education

Recovery:

  • Hydration during and after activity
  • Sufficient rest (naps) and sleep is very important as growth accelerates and training volume increases at the same time

Health monitoring:

  • Monitor musculo-skeletal system during PHV
  • Monitoring of hormonal parameters that can affect training efficiency
  • Standardized functional movement screen (physio assessment)

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Bring in sports dietitian at this stage for the athletes
  • Consider educating parents separately from the athletes
  • Good athletes eating habits (the basic principles)
  • Further education about body composition that is ideal for performance (e.g. more muscle does not ideally mean better performance)
  • Further education for coaches, athletes and parents
  • Energy level maintained throughout activity
  • Quick recovery from physical activity
CompetitionMALES

Sprints:

  • 1-2x 100m or < 20 sec.
  • 2-3 x 200-400m (skills race)

Distance: 3 – 10k (10-30 min.)

  • 2 x 3k
  • 5 x 5k
  • 1-2 x 7.5k mass start
  • 0-1 x 10k mass start at end of season

Total: 8-12 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 1-2x 100m or < 20 sec.
  • 2-3 x 200-400m (skills race)

Distance: 1.5 – 7.5k (5-30 min.)

  • 5 x 1.5-3k
  • 2 x 5k
  • 1-2 x 7.5k mass start at end of season

Total: 8-12 races
See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces for 5km:

Skating :
Males: 3:11/km
Females: 3:32/km

Classic :
Males: 3:29/km
Females: 3:47/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Train to Train - part 2 (T2T-2)

Average age: Females 14-15, Males 15-16

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = progression from 350-450 hrs over 3 years; Year round program (“racers are made in the summer”); Training program with single Periodization ; sport specific training 6-9 X week

Emphasis: Major fitness development stage ; Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power (post PHV), anaerobic alactic power and capacity, and strength; continue to closely monitor growth as PHV is an important reference point for planning.

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans:
NB: provided samples are for T2T-2 athletes; T2T-1 athletes should simply progressively move toward these guidelines

International Points Benchmarks, per year of birth (targeted average points on final CPL)

 JB/G1JB/G2JM/W1JM/W2SEN1SEN2SEN3SEN4SEN5SEN6SEN7SEN8SEN9SEN10+
women sprint83.586.589.091.093.094.095.096.096.597.097.597.597.597.5
women distance81.084.086.588.590.592.093.094.094.595.095.596.096.096.0
men sprint84.587.590.092.094.095.096.096.596.596.597.097.097.097.0
men distance84.087.089.591.593.594.595.095.596.096.597.097.598.098.5

Explanation of 2015 IPB review

 

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • refinement of all ski techniques
  • improve technique adaptations to all snow, track and terrain conditions
  • focus on performance related technique adaptations (tempo, snap, range)
  • can maintain efficient technique at race pace from start to finish*
  • adequate use of rhythm, amplitude and glide adapted to track conditions*
  • Standardized functional movement screen (physio assessment)

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power, past PHV
  • Males only: Last phase of Window of Optimal Trainability for anaerobic alactic power and capacity ( ≤ 20 sec.), speed training
  • Further develop aerobic capacity
  • Boys can begin some anaerobic lactic power training (20-60 sec. intervals)

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans

  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60 – 120 sec
  3. 3min – 15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 3:15
Female = 3:35

3000m(mm:ss)
Male = 11:00
Female = 12:05

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 258
Females: 235

  • Increased capacity to sustain prolonged efforts (at low intensity):

hiking: 5 hrs
cycling: 3.5 hrs
running: 1.5 hrs (trail)
skiing: 3 hrs

Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Window of Optimal Trainability for strength (females start immediately after PHV and males start 12-18 months past PHV)
  • emphasis on upper body strength
  • start to increase specific endurance strength work (skate without poles, double poling)
  • Incorporate more time in the Weight Room
  • Pre-puberty work on learning and perfecting technique
  • Peak Height Velocity is a good time to work on strength as learning technique at this time is not optimal. Do not try to learn any new difficult technique
  • Should have the appropriate movement patterns by this time

Specific T2T guidelines
Specific strength practice plans for T2T

Flexibility:

  • Emphasize flexibility due to growth spurts and generally decreasing flexibility;more frequent stretching is required to prevent damage to muscles and tendon
  • Goal is to maintain good flexibility, as when younger

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:
National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):

Males = 250
Females = 190

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Continue to introduce race tactics
  • Introduce sport rules and ethics
  • Observe different individuals race tactics
  • Introduce use goal setting skills in conjunction with training and racing.
  • Introduce imagery skills (for technique, self-confidence, for arousal control)
  • Continue to develop focus/refocus and concentration skills
  • Continue to develop self-control skills (breathing, biofeedback, identify negative and positive thoughts, patience, problem-solving)
  • Develop post-race analysis skills
  • Continue to develop cultural and lifestyle habits
  • Promote the use of training logs for competitive season
  • Promote use of time management
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Promote self- discipline and personal responsibility skills

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Demonstrates respect towards other ski racers by applauding and praising others’ efforts (rather than openly criticizing or making mean comments)
  • Enforces the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behaviour conduct during training and racing
  • Demonstrates responsibility towards appropriate clothing and equipment for raining and competitive environment
  • Regularly practices habits of hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport for a healthy lifestyle
  • Knows the general factors that contribute to good and poor performance
  • Achieves desired personal performance in general and during different ski race distances
  • Can recognize general factors that contribute to good and poor performance in OTHERS’ competitive performance
  • Can use relaxation strategies to appropriate manage energy during training in general and during competitive simulation training drills
  • Can recognize pre-competitive worries and use “Thought Stopping” to prepare for competition
  • Is able to maintain a weekly log of physical and mental training
  • Develops (with aid of a coach) a simple race plan to use during competition
  • Is able to “SMARTER” goals for training
  • Can set outcome, performance, and process goals in training
  • Has been introduced to use imagery for skill learning and skill performing in training environment
  • Uses imagery to practice skills, learn new skills/strategy, evaluate/correct mistakes, build confidence, aid relaxation and concentration
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring

Nutrition:

  • adjust nutritional intake to increasing training load and requirements
  • Continue education about sport specific nutrition
  • Maintain good calcium AND iron intake; require 1300 mg calcium daily; females need 15 mg iron & males need 11 mg iron daily

Recovery:

  • Systematic post intensity recovery strategies
  • Sufficient rest (naps) and sleep is very important as growth accelerates and training volume increases at the same time

Health monitoring:

  • Consistent recovery, medical and training monitoring
  • Monitor musculo-skeletal system during growth spurt and PHV
  • Pay attention to, start monitor blood iron levels 1-2 x par year (blood sample); post season and early fall (post pubescent females need closer monitoring) Monitoring of hormonal parameters that can affect training efficiency

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Athletes AND parents educated about more advanced sport specific nutrition
  • Adequate energy level to achieve training load
  • Adequate rate of recovery from training
  • Create simple checklist for athletes to ensure athletes are getting adequate fluid intake
Competition

MALES

Sprints:

  • 2 x 0.1k (or ≤ 20 sec.)
  • 2 x 0.8-1k (>2 min.)

Distance: 3 – 15k (7-40 min.)

  • 3 x 2-3km as team relays or prologue
  • 7 x 5-10k
  • 1-2 x 15k mass start end of season

Total: 13-17 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 2 x 0.1k (or ≤ 20 sec.)
  • 2 x 0.8-1k (>2 min.)

Distance: 3-10k or 7-40 min.)

  • 3 x 2-3km as team relays or prologue
  • 6 x 5-7.5k
  • 2 x 10k

Total: 13-17 races
See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces for 5km:

Skating :
Males: 2:52/km
Females: 3:11/km

Classic :
Males: 3:08/km
Females: 3:24/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Learn to Compete - part 1 (L2C-1)

Average age: Females 15-17, Males 16-18

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = progression from 450-550 hrs over 3 years; increase sport specific training in the off-season; Training program from single to triple periodization; sport specific training occurs 7-10 X week

Emphasis: Window of Optimal Trainability for strength and for aerobic power post PHV; integration of x-c ski racing and training as a lifestyle;

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans:
NB: provided samples are for T2T-2 athletes; T2T-1 athletes should simply progressively move toward these guidelines

International Points Benchmarks, per year of birth (targeted average points on final CPL)

 JB/G1JB/G2JM/W1JM/W2SEN1SEN2SEN3SEN4SEN5SEN6SEN7SEN8SEN9SEN10+
women sprint83.586.589.091.093.094.095.096.096.597.097.597.597.597.5
women distance81.084.086.588.590.592.093.094.094.595.095.596.096.096.0
men sprint84.587.590.092.094.095.096.096.596.596.597.097.097.097.0
men distance84.087.089.591.593.594.595.095.596.096.597.097.598.098.5

Explanation of 2015 IPB review

 

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • refinement of all ski techniques
  • further improve technique adaptations to all snow, track and terrain conditions (including technique transitions)
  • improve technique efficiency with high degree of fatigue
  • Maximize use of technique in specific contexts (start, finish, avoiding crashes, etc)
  • Maintaining high degree of general athleticism
  • can adapt technique to perform in different conditions and on different types of courses

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power, post PHV
  • Further develop aerobic capacity and power
  • Further develop speed
  • Gradual emphasis on developing anaerobic lactic power and capacity (30-60 sec. intervals)

Table of training zones and example workouts for L2C athletes

  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60 – 120 sec
  3. 3min – 15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 3:05
Female = 3:25

3000m (mm:ss)
Male = 10:30
Female = 11:40

4000m (mm:ss)
Male = 14:10
Female = 15:45

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 270
Females: 244

Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Window of Optimal Trainability for strength (use PHV as reference)
  • Develop specific endurance strength
  • Introduce plyometric strength workouts
  • Gradual emphasis on developing power as getting closer to the end of the sub-stage
  • Regularly in the Weight Room; Should be able to do any exercise asked of them and have the proper movement patterns

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Emphasize flexibility due to growth spurts and generally decreasing flexibility;more frequent stretching is required to prevent damage to muscles and tendon
  • Goal is to maintain good flexibility, as when younger

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:
National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):
Males = 280
Females = 220

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Refine tactical skills and test various strategies
  • Develop the ability to observe and adapt to opponents
  • Continue sport rules and ethics
  • Promote personal responsibility and involvement in decision making
  • Refine use of mental skills for training and competition
  • Optimize culture and lifestyle habits for tapering and peaking
  • Refine use of training logs for self-monitoring
  • Promote on-going personal development
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Address economic and independence issues

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Identifies post-secondary interests for personal development (e.g., education, future employment possibilities including sport, and family ect.)
  • Is knowledgeable about performance enhance supplements and the health effects of legal and illegal agents
  • Participates in the development and periodization of competitive season
  • Knows the general factors that contribute to good and poor performance
  • Achieves desired personal performance in general and during different ski race distances
  • Can identify general factors that contribute to good and poor performance in OTHERS’ competitive performance
  • Maintains a season-long log of physical and mental training
  • Uses a pre-competition and competition plan
  • Can recognize distractions for performance in training and competitive situations and use imagery, self-talk, and relaxation strategies to refocus
  • Is able set SMARTER outcome, performance, and process goals for training and competition
  • Sets long-term and short term goals for performance and skill learning
  • Uses relaxation and self-talk skills to manage pre-competitive anxiety
  • Enforces the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behavior conduct during training and racing
  • Regularly practices habits of hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport for a healthy lifestyle
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring

Nutrition:

  • adjust nutritional intake to increasing training load and requirements
  • Continue education about sport specific nutrition
  • Maintain good calcium AND iron intake; require 1300 mg calcium daily; females need 15 mg iron & males need 11 mg iron daily

Recovery:

  • systematic post intensity recovery strategies
  • Sufficient rest (naps) and sleep is very important to ensure proper recovery from increased training load and biological growth requirements during this stage

Health monitoring:

  • consistent recovery, medical and training monitoring
  • monitor musculo-skeletal system during growth spurt and PHV
  • monitor blood iron levels 1-2 x per year (blood sample)post season and early fall (post pubescent females need closer monitoring)

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Athletes AND parents educated about more advanced sport specific nutrition
  • Appropriate growth rate; discuss with females nutrition that can be related to amenorrhea (missing consecutive menstrual cycles)
  • Adequate energy level to achieve training load
  • Adequate rate of recovery from training
  • Familiar with pre and post intensity recovery strategies (including nutritional)
  • Individual counselling with Sports Dietitian for individualized strategies
Competition

MALES

Sprints:

  • 6-7 x 1-1.4k

Distance: 3 – 30k (7-90 min.)

  • 2-3 x 2-4km as team relays or prologue
  • 5-7 x 5-10k
  • 2-4 x 15k
  • 1-2 x 20k mass start or pursuit
  • 0-1 x 30k mass start end of season

Total: 20-25 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 6-7 x 0.8-1.2k

Distance: 3-20k or 7-60 min.)

  • 2-3 x 2-4km as team relays or prologue
  • 5-7 x 5-7.5k
  • 2-4 x 10k
  • 1-2 x 15k mass start or pursuit
  • 0-1 x 20k mass start end of Season

Total: 20-25 races

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces (female 5k, male 10k):

Skating :
Males: 2:40/km
Females: 3:05/km

Classic :
Males: 2:54/km
Females: 3:17/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Learn to Compete - part 2 (L2C-2)

Average age: Females 17-19, Males 18-20

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = progression from 550-650 hrs over 3 years; increase sport specific training in the off-season; Training program from single to triple periodization ; sport specific training occurs 7-10 X week

Emphasis: Window of Optimal Trainability for strength, and for aerobic power post PHV; integration of x-c ski racing and training as a lifestyle; reflect on level of commitment for next few years based on results, progression, motivation; development of self-awareness and independence

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans:
NB: provided samples are for T2T-2 athletes; T2T-1 athletes should simply progressively move toward these guidelines

International Points Benchmarks, per year of birth (targeted average points on final CPL)

 JB/G1JB/G2JM/W1JM/W2SEN1SEN2SEN3SEN4SEN5SEN6SEN7SEN8SEN9SEN10+
women sprint83.586.589.091.093.094.095.096.096.597.097.597.597.597.5
women distance81.084.086.588.590.592.093.094.094.595.095.596.096.096.0
men sprint84.587.590.092.094.095.096.096.596.596.597.097.097.097.0
men distance84.087.089.591.593.594.595.095.596.096.597.097.598.098.5

Explanation of 2015 IPB review

 

 Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • refinement of all ski techniques
  • further improve technique adaptations to all snow, track and terrain conditions (including technique transitions)
  • improve technique efficiency with high degree of fatigue
  • Maximize use of technique in specific contexts (start, finish, avoiding crashes, etc)
  • Maintaining high degree of general athleticism
  • can adapt technique to perform in different conditions and on different types of courses

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power, post PHV
  • Further develop aerobic capacity and power
  • Further develop speed
  • Develop anaerobic lactic power and capacity (30-90 sec. intervals).

Table of training zones and example workouts for L2C athletes

  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60 – 120 sec
  3. 3min – 15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 3:00
Female = 3:20

3000m (mm:ss)
Male = 10:05
Female = 11:15

4000m (mm:ss)
Male = 13:50
Female = 15:20

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 282
Females: 253

Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Window of Optimal Trainability for strength (use PHV as reference)
  • Regularly in the Weight Room; Should be able to do any exercise asked of them and have the proper movement patterns
  • Emphasis on developing power
  • Develop specific endurance strength
  • Gradual increase in plyometric strength workouts

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Emphasize flexibility due to growth spurts and generally decreasing flexibility;more frequent stretching is required to prevent damage to muscles and tendon
  • Goal is to maintain good flexibility, as when younger

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

  • Improve individual curves using custom field tests, DOUBLE POLING AND LEGS ONLY ROLLERSKIING over the following durations (view generic graph above):
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60-120 sec
  3. 3min-15min

National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):
Males = 280
Females = 220

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Refine tactical skills and test various strategies
  • Develop the ability to observe and adapt to opponents
  • Continue sport rules and ethics
  • Promote personal responsibility and involvement in decision making
  • Refine use of mental skills and routine for training and competition
  • Optimize culture and lifestyle habits for tapering, peaking, and injury prevention
  • Refine use of training logs for self-monitoring
  • Promote on-going personal development
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Address economic and independence issues
  • Introduce career planning

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Enforces the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behavior conduct during training and racing
  • Regularly practices habits of hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport for a healthy lifestyle
  • Plans for post-secondary interests for personal development (e.g., education, future employment possibilities including sport, and family ect.)
  • Is knowledgeable about performance enhance supplements and the health effects of legal and illegal agents
  • Participates in the development and periodization of competitive season
  • Can identify trends in personal performance and skill development from season long training log
  • Can identify general factors that contribute to good and poor performance in OTHERS’ competitive performance
  • Maintains a season-long log of physical and mental training
  • Can develop and use a personalized pre-competition plan
  • Assists in the development of and uses a competition plan
  • Can critically reflect and evaluate training and competition performance
  • Can recognize distractions for performance in training and competitive situations and use imagery, self-talk, and relaxation strategies to refocus
  • Is able set SMARTER outcome, performance, and process goals for training and competition
  • Sets long-term and short term goals for performance and skill learning
  • Uses relaxation
    and self-talk skills to manage pre-competitive anxiety
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring

Nutrition:

  • adjust nutritional intake to increasing training load and requirements
  • Pursue education about sport specific nutrition
  • Maintain good calcium intake; up to 19 years require 1300 mg calcium, 19 years and older require 1000 mg calcium
  • Females require 18 mg iron; males require 8 mg

Recovery:

  • systematic post intensity recovery strategies
  • Sufficient rest (naps) and sleep is very important to ensure proper recovery from increased training load and biological growth requirements during this stage

Health monitoring:

  • consistent recovery, medical and training monitoring
  • monitor musculo-skeletal system during growth spurt and PHV
  • monitor blood iron levels 1-2 x per year (blood sample)post season and early fall (post pubescent females need closer monitoring)

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Athletes AND parents educated about more advanced sport specific nutrition
  • Appropriate growth rate
  • Adequate energy level to achieve training load
  • Adequate rate of recovery from training
  • Restaurant/Fast Food meals: from on-line information calculate % carbs, protein, fat, plus determine mg of sodium
  • Familiar with pre and post intensity recovery strategies (including nutritional)
Competition

MALES

Sprints:

  • 6-7 x 1-1.4k

Distance: 3 – 30k (7-90 min.)

  • 2-3 x 2-4km as team relays or prologue
  • 7-10 x 10-15k
  • 2-3 x 15k
  • 1-2 x 20k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 30k mass start end of season

Total: 20-25 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 6-7 x 0.8-1.2k

Distance: 3-30k or 7-60 min.)

  • 2-3 x 2-4km as team relays or prologue
  • 7-10 x 5-10k
  • 2-3 x 15k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 20k mass start end of Season

Total: 20-25 races

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces (female 10k, male 15k):

Skating :
Males: 2:31/km
Females: 2:52/km

Classic :
Males: 2:44/km
Females: 3:03/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Training to Compete (T2C)
Average age: Females 19-23, Males 20-23

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = progression from 600hrs to 800 hrs over 4 years; highly specific activities year round; Sport specific training occurs 9-12 times per week; Training program with double or triple periodization

Emphasis: Clearly identify and focus on improvement of personal weaknesses; evaluate level of commitment for next few years; further develop self-awareness and independence; optimal ancillary capacities; optimal lifestyle and training environment for HP goals

T2T training zones table and samples of yearly, seasonal and weekly plans:
NB: provided samples are for T2T-2 athletes; T2T-1 athletes should simply progressively move toward these guidelines

International Points Benchmarks, per year of birth (targeted average points on final CPL)

JB/G1JB/G2JM/W1JM/W2SEN1SEN2SEN3SEN4SEN5SEN6SEN7SEN8SEN9SEN10+
women sprint83.586.589.091.093.094.095.096.096.597.097.597.597.597.5
women distance81.084.086.588.590.592.093.094.094.595.095.596.096.096.0
men sprint84.587.590.092.094.095.096.096.596.596.597.097.097.097.0
men distance84.087.089.591.593.594.595.095.596.096.597.097.598.098.5

Explanation of 2015 IPB review

 

Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Stay on cutting edge of technical evolution
  • optimize technique adaptations to all snow, track and terrain conditions
  • focus on personal weaknesses correction and improve technique
  • further develop efficiency with high degree of fatigue
  • develop awaren
    ess of most efficient personal technique “style” (that best suits personal characteristics)
  • Maximize use of technique in specific contexts (start, finish, etc)
  • can maintain efficient technique at high speed and high degree of fatigue throughout a race or intensity workout

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Window of Optimal Trainability for aerobic power, post PHV
  • Further develop aerobic capacity and power
  • Further develop speed
  • Develop anaerobic lactic power and capacity (30-90 sec. intervals).

Table of training zones and example workouts for L2C athletes

  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60 – 120 sec
  3. 3min – 15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 2:50
Female = 3:10

4000m (mm:ss)
Male = 13:05
Female = 14:35

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 293
Females: 263

Strength & FlexibilityStrength:

  • Regularly in the Weight Room; Should be able to do any exercise asked of them and have the proper movement patterns
  • Optimize specific endurance and power
  • Develop plyometric strength

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Decreasing flexibility, requiring stretching of tight muscle groups to enhance function and prevent injury
  • Goal is to maintain good flexibility

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

  • Improve individual curves using custom field tests, DOUBLE POLING AND LEGS ONLY ROLLERSKIING over the following durations (view generic graph above):
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60-120 sec
  3. 3min-15min

National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):
Males = 315
Females = 250

Flexibility:

Mental SkillsPreamble

  • Refine for efficiency in tactical skills for specific discipline and distance races
  • Develop team event tactics in competition
  • Continue sport rules and ethics
  • Refine decision making skills
  • Refine use of mental skills and routines for training and competition
  • Develop distraction management skills
  • Promote the will to win and drive for competition
  • Optimize culture and lifestyle habits for tapering, peaking, and injury prevention
  • Refine logs for self-monitoring
  • Promote on-going personal wellness
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Integrate sport, career, and life plan
  • Media training
  • Regular monitoring and testing
  • Travel strategies

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Enforces the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behavior conduct during training and racing
  • Regularly practices habits of hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport for a healthy lifestyle
  • Plans for post-secondary interests for personal development (e.g., education, future employment possibilities including sport, and family ect.)
  • Is knowledgeable about performance enhance supplements and the health effects of legal and illegal agents
  • Is invested in the development and periodization of competitive season for personal performance
  • Can identify personal performance and skill development trends from season based on information in season-long training log
  • Develops personal performance and skill development goals (outcome, performance, process)
  • Performs well within a team environment and positively supports the team goals for training and performance
  • Develops and uses a personalized pre-competition plan
  • Assists in the development of and uses a competition plan to optimize strengths and exploit weakness of opponents
  • Can critically reflect and evaluate training and competition performance
  • Can recognize distractions for performance in training and competitive situations and use imagery, self-talk, and relaxation strategies to refocus
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoringNutrition:

  • adjust nutritional intake to increasing training load and requirements
  • adapted sport and recovery drink recipes/mixes for type of effort
  • optimize glycogen (carbs) intake for long distance events
  • focus on iron rich foods since Females require 18 mg and Males require 8 mg daily

Recovery:

  • Stay updated about HP nutritional and recovery strategies
  • optimize use of paramedical support

Health monitoring:

  • consistent recovery, medical and training monitoring
  • monitor blood iron and other hematological parameters 4-6 x per year (e.g. Vitamin B12, omega 3, ferritin, Vitamin D)
  • maintain awareness of iron-deficiency symptoms

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Adequate energy level to achieve training load
  • Adequate rate of recovery from training
  • Decreasing need to adapt training and racing load due to illness
  • Consistent and adequate level of blood iron and other hematological parameter
  • Timing of race-day nutrition/supplementation regime leading up to competition day, as well as recovery (under the guidance of Sports RD)
  • Independent living skills – cooking skills, grocery store tours, etc.
  • Training specificity (periodization) which is matched with the appropriate nutritional regime (involvement of sports RD)
  • Regular individual monitoring of food and fluid intake; educate athletes how to individually assess their nutrition
  • Discuss effective sport supplementation
  • Assess hydration by having athletes check weight pre- and post-training; aim to drink 500 ml for every 0.5 kg lost + add 250-500 ml extra fluids to account for urinary losses
CompetitionMALES

Sprints:

  • 7-8 x 1-1.8k

Distance: 3 – 50k (7-150 min.)

  • 2-3 x 3-5km as team relays or prologue
  • 10-12 x 15-20k
  • 3-4 x 30k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 50k mass start end of season

Total: 25-30 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 7-8 x 1-1.4k

Distance: 3-30k or 7-90 min.

  • 2-3 x 3-5km as team relays or prologue
  • 10-12 x 10-15k
  • 3-4 x 20k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 30k mass start end of Season

Total: 25-30 races

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces (female 10k, male 15k):

Skating :
Males: 2:23/km
Females: 2:41/km

Classic :
Males: 2:35/km
Females: 2:52/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory

Training to Win (T2W)

Average age: 23 and over

Training load: yearly volume (view interpretation and chart) = 700-900+ hrs based on athlete’s personal profile and varying circumstances; increase and maximize the training load that the athlete can handle; Sport training occurs 9-15 times per week; highly specific activities year round; training program with; double to multiple periodization

Emphasis: Full time commitment to cross country skiing; individualize all possible aspects of training and performance; optimal self-awareness and independence; optimal ancillary capacities; optimal lifestyle and training environment for HP goals

International Points Benchmarks, per year of birth (targeted average points on final CPL)

JB/G1JB/G2JM/W1JM/W2SEN1SEN2SEN3SEN4SEN5SEN6SEN7SEN8SEN9SEN10+
women sprint83.586.589.091.093.094.095.096.096.597.097.597.597.597.5
women distance81.084.086.588.590.592.093.094.094.595.095.596.096.096.0
men sprint84.587.590.092.094.095.096.096.596.596.597.097.097.097.0
men distance84.087.089.591.593.594.595.095.596.096.597.097.598.098.5

Explanation of 2015 IPB review
Videos of May 2016 HP coaching seminar presentations

 

Program GuidelinesBenchmarks*
Technique
  • Stay on cutting edge of technical evolution
  • focus on personal weaknesses correction and improve technique
  • further develop efficiency with high degree of fatigue
  • optimize effectiveness of personal technique “style” (that best suits personal characteristics)
  • Maximize use of technique in specific contexts (start, finish, etc)
  • optimal execution of all techniques
  • can react to all adverse track conditions or deficient ski preparation by adapting technique efficiently, at high intensity and with a high degree of fatigue throughout a race or intensity workout

Technique checklists and videos:

Energy Systems
  • Improve all physical capacities by maximizing the training load (volume and intensity) that the athlete can handle
  • Ability to change paces
  • High sustainable pace (velocity, output)
  • Energy systems elasticity (move from one source-speed to the other efficiently)
  • Improve individual curves (average velocity, HR, lactate VS duration, velocity, power output) using custom field tests (Uphill running, cycling, rollerskiing) over the following durations:
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60 – 120 sec
  3. 3min – 15min

Running (3-4 times off season):

1000m (mm:ss)
Male = 2:45
Female = 3:05

4000m (mm:ss)
Male = 12:40
Female = 14:10

Critical speed (m per min)

Males: 303
Females: 271

Strength & Flexibility

Strength:

  • Regularly in the Weight Room; Focus on technique and increase repetitions
  • Balance positions and exercises should be emphasized (one leg exercises, in line squats and lunges, core exercises focusing on anti rotation (planks with limb lifts, planks with hurdle position involved etc
  • Can do any loaded exercise for which they can show perfect technique
  • Use med balls, dowels, lighter kettlebells, dumbbells and barbells
  • Maximize specific endurance and power (for both upper and lower body)
  • optimize plyometric strength

Complete guidelines and video clips of exercises

Flexibility:

  • Decreasing flexibility, requiring stretching of tight muscle groups to enhance function and prevent injury
  • Goal is to maintain good flexibility

Stretching guidelines
Example of flexibility routine

Strength:

  • Improve individual curves using custom field tests, DOUBLE POLING AND LEGS ONLY ROLLERSKIING over the following durations (view generic graph above):
  1. Less than 30 sec
  2. 60-120 sec
  3. 3min-15min

National Strength Test scores (3 times off-season):
Males = 315
Females = 250

Flexibility:

Mental Skills

Preamble

  • Refine ability to adapt tactics to specific race situations
  • Refine team event tactics in competition
  • Race to strengths, exploit weakness of opponents
  • Continue sport rules and ethics
  • Refine decision making skills
  • Consolidate well developed, refined mental skills and routines
  • Refine distraction management skills
  • Optimize culture and lifestyle habits for tapering, peaking, and injury prevention
  • Refine use of training logs for self-monitoring
  • Promote on-going personal wellness
  • Continue to promote teamwork and personal interaction skills
  • Include a fully integrated sport, career and life plan
  • Media training
  • Regular monitoring and testing
  • Travel strategies

Additional resources
Mental Fitness for LTAD (by Canadian Sport For Life)

Detailed benchmarks for all stages

Athlete:

  • Enforces the rules for ski safety, ski racing, and codes of behavior conduct during training and racing
  • Athlete participates in physical monitoring and testing
  • Regularly practices habits of hydration and nutrition, sleep, and sport for a healthy lifestyle
  • Engages in post-secondary interests for personal development (e.g., education, future employment possibilities including sport, and family ect.)
  • displays commitment to training at high intensity
  • Is committed to the development and periodization of competitive season for personal performance
  • Is able to critically reflect and evaluate training and competition
  • Is able to regular monitor, evaluate, and adjust goals through the use of a training log
  • Performs well within a team environment and positively supports the team goals for training and performance
  • Athlete has a well-developed and well utilized mental skills program and applies mental skills for optimal training and competitive performance
  • Athlete has a well-developed and well utilized pre-competition plan
  • Athlete has a well-developed competition plan (that is refined with the aid of coach) to race to strengths and exploiting weakness of opponents
  • Athlete has a high level of awareness of ideal performance state
  • Athlete has a plan and well practiced strategies to manage distractions
  • Athlete has the ability to manage competitive stress and can perform consistently under a variety of conditions
Nutrition, recovery and health monitoring

Nutrition:

  • adjust nutritional intake to increasing training load and requirements
  • adapted sport and recovery drink recipes/mixes for type of effort
  • optimize glycogen (carbs) intake for long distance events
  • Females require 18 mg and Males 8 mg of iron daily

Recovery:

  • Stay updated about HP nutritional and recovery strategies
  • optimize use of paramedical support

Health monitoring:

  • consistent recovery, medical and training monitoring
  • monitor blood iron and other hematological parameters 4-6 x per year (e.g. Vitamin B12, omega 3, ferritin, Vitamin D)
  • maintain awareness of iron-deficiency symptoms

sleep/post exercise recovery guidelines and benchmarks

View complete guidelines and benchmarks

  • Adequate energy level to achieve training load
  • Adequate rate of recovery from training
  • Consistent and adequate level of blood iron and other haematological parameters
  • Individualized nutrition consultations to address training, recovery, competition intake
  • Team sharing of recipes, especially when cooking for self during training camps & out of town competitions
  • Develop Nutrition Tips to be presentd to the athletes via team website
  • Sustained intensity levels in long distance races; nutrition for endurance training and racing; education about use of sports drinks, bars & gels
  • Training specificity (periodization) which is matched with the appropriate nutritional regime (involvement of sports Dietitian to help with supplementation/nutrition programming relative to the Team’s YTP)
  • Athletes complete daily monitoring of nutrition (foods, fluids, timing, energy levels) for personal accountability
  • Continue timing of race-day nutrition/recovery with guidance from Sports Dietitian
  • Monitoring and education by multidisciplinary sports health professionals – Integrated Sports Teams (IST)
  • Individualized prescription for supplementation
  • Assess hydration by having athletes check weight pre- and post-training; aim to drink 500 ml for every 0.5 kg lost + add 250-500 ml extra fluids to account for urinary losses
Competition

MALES

Sprints:

  • 9-10 x 1-1.8k

Distance: 3 – 50k (7-150 min.)

  • 2-4 x 3-5km prologue
  • 2 x 10k relay
  • 8-1 x 15k
  • 4-6 x 30k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 50k mass start end of season

Total: 30-35 races

FEMALES

Sprints:

  • 9-10 x 1-1.8k

Distance: 3-50k or 7-150 min.

  • 2-4 x 3-5km prologue
  • 2 x 5km relay
  • 8-10 x 10-15k
  • 4-6 x 20k mass start or pursuit
  • 1-2 x 30k mass start end of Season

Total: 30-35 races

See Competition Model for complete guidelines

Average ski race paces (female 10k, male 15k):

Skating :
Males: 2:21/km
Females: 2:38/km

Classic :
Males: 2:33/km
Females: 2:48/km

Environmental and supporting factors
  1. Waxing Resources: Nordiq Canada Waxing Demo Video
  2. Considerations referring to items that are not related to the training plan and training workload of an athlete but that will nonetheless influence an athlete’s success

See table

* benchmarks are set for end of stage; achieving within 2% of quantified benchmarks is judged satisfactory